The current use of neuromodulation for bladder dysfunction.
Neuromodulation utilizes electrical stimulation to alter the function of an organ. Recent advances in technology and improved knowledge of micturition physiology have coincided with the growth of neuromodulation for the treatment of urinary urgency/frequency, urge incontinence and non-obstructive urinary retention. Currently, the most common modality for bladder neuromodulation involves stimulation through the S3 foramen, or sacral neuromodulation. This review will highlight the current indications, patients selection, implantation options/techniques, outcomes and complications of sacral neuromodulation. In addition, other methods of neuromodulation will be discussed.
Sherman, ND; Amundsen, CL
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