The role of radical surgery in the management of radiation recurrent and large volume prostate cancer.
Twenty-two patients seen between 1975 and 1988 were analyzed who had surgical attempts to cure locally advanced prostate cancer by exenterative procedures or salvage surgery for radiation recurrent disease. Twelve patients (Group I) underwent either a salvage cystoprostatectomy or perineal prostatectomy for radiorecurrent disease, including three patients with a Kock continent urinary diversion done in combination with the salvage operation. Five of the 12 (41.7%) recurrent disease confined to the surgical specimen and 11 of 12 (91.7%) are alive at a mean follow-up of 49 months, including four patients (25%) with a completely negative serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) value (less than 0.2 ng/dl). All perineal prostatectomy patients are continent, and two of the three Kock pouch patients are continent. Ten of the 22 patients (Group II) had a cystoprostatectomy or exenteration for locally advanced disease that the surgeon did not think was amenable to standard radical prostatectomy. Only one of these ten patients had negative surgical margins, capsule, and seminal vesicles. Nine are alive (although only one patient has no evidence of disease) at a mean follow-up of 59 months. Morbidity was substantial with a 50% major complication rate including four patients requiring reoperation because of bleeding, abscess, bowel obstruction, or colostomy closure. Salvage procedures for radiorecurrent disease can be done safely, even with the inclusion of a continent diversion, and may be curative or provide survival benefit to carefully selected patients. Cystoprostatectomy or exenteration for locally advanced disease does not appear to be a curative endeavor for most patients and may be accompanied by significant morbidity.
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