Improvements in pathologic staging for African-American men undergoing radical retropubic prostatectomy during the prostate specific antigen era: implications for screening a high-risk group for prostate carcinoma.
BACKGROUND: The objective was to compare the changes in pathologic and clinical data over time for African-American (AA) and white men with prostate carcinoma undergoing radical prostatectomy in an attempt to determine the early impact of prostate specific antigen (PSA). METHODS: Data from 195 AA and 587 white men who underwent radical prostatectomy from 1988 to 1999 in an equal access, tertiary, military medical facility were collected. Statistical analysis was used to determine the significance of the changes in the rates of extracapsular extension (ECE), positive margins, pretreatment PSA levels, and age at the time of surgery for each race over time. RESULTS: Comparing 1988-99 results, the authors found that the percentage of AA men with ECE decreased from 100% to 34.8% (P = 0.007), and for white men from 56.9% to 43.2% (P = 0.269). The percentage of AA men with positive margins decreased from 100% to 26.1% (P < 0.0001), and for white men from 41.2% to 27.0% (P = 0.021). Mean age at surgery decreased from 66.6 to 59.9 years for AA men (P < 0.001) and from 65.9 to 61.1 years for white men (P < 0.001). Also, PSA levels decreased from 10.1 to 6.6 ng/dL for white men (P < 0.001) and from 16.5 to 6.5 ng/dL for AA men (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The authors believe that the decrease in ECE and positive margins in AA men is primarily because of PSA testing, coupled with improved public awareness and equal access to care. It appears reasonable to recommend PSA testing in AA men, who have historically experienced poor outcomes from prostate carcinoma.
Paquette, EL; Connelly, RR; Sesterhenn, IA; Zhang, W; Sun, L; Paquette, LR; Greenspan, R; McLeod, DG; Moul, JW
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