p53 nuclear protein expression is an independent prognostic marker in clinically localized prostate cancer patients undergoing radical prostatectomy.
Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for p53 protein nuclear expression was evaluated in archival paraffin-embedded radical prostatectomy specimens from 139 patients with clinically localized prostate cancer followed up from 1 to 8 (mean, 4) years. Elevated nuclear p53 protein expression was detected in 85 (61%) of 139 patients, being heterogeneous and focal in the majority of specimens. Only four specimens displayed homogeneous nuclear accumulation of p53 protein. Disease progression, most commonly prostate-specific antigen elevation, was noted in 46 (33%) patients, with 39 (85%) having positive p53 protein IHC stains. Conversely, 93 (67%) of 139 have not recurred, with 46 (49%) having positive p53. Of all 54 p53-negative patients, 47 (87%) have had no disease recurrence. An increased p53 protein IHC stain was associated with a higher pathological stage (T1 and T2, 51% versus >/=T3, 69%) and Gleason score 2-4, 17%; 5-7, 72%; and 8-10, 87.5%). Despite these associations, p53 IHC staining was an independent predictor of disease-free survival in a multivariate analysis of p53, age, race, stage, and grade. This study revealed that a majority of clinically localized prostate cancers heterogeneously express elevated nuclear levels of p53 protein in at least a subset of malignant cells, and that this expression is an independent predictor of disease progression in prostate cancer patients after radical prostatectomy.
Bauer, JJ; Sesterhenn, IA; Mostofi, KF; McLeod, DG; Srivastava, S; Moul, JW
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