PSA progression following radical prostatectomy and radiation therapy: new standards in the new Millennium.
Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) progression following radical treatments of clinically localized prostate cancer is a common problem facing both the patient and the urologist. Not all patients with relapsing disease have an equal risk of death due to prostate cancer. After surgery, biochemical failure can be defined as persisting detectable levels of PSA after radical prostatectomy or a PSA rise after a period of normalization. On the other hand, definitions of PSA progression after radiation therapy vary and no clear consensus can be found. This review of the recent international literature updates the knowledge about the diagnostic procedures used in relapsing patients. Predictors of progression are precised leading to a better patient selection, based on currently available tables and nomograms. Indeed, identification of high risk patients may allow a more appropriate treatment decision. After radical treatment, the analysis of time to recurrence, PSA doubling time, PSA kinetics combined to modern imaging techniques such as 111In capromab penditide scan may allow a better identification of the recurrence site. Thus, an optimal treatment strategy may be envisaged such as local irradiation, salvage surgery, hormone therapy or combinations for which indications and results are provided. Alternative options such as cryotherapy still need further investigation. At last, the use of artificial neural networks will certainly enhance the selection of patients submitted to radical treatments as well as the selection of relapsing patients to allow a more appropriate adjuvant therapy.
Djavan, B; Moul, JW; Zlotta, A; Remzi, M; Ravery, V
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