Baseline prostate-specific antigen testing at a young age.
CONTEXT: Prostate cancer screening is highly controversial, including the age to begin prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing. Several studies have evaluated the usefulness of baseline PSA measurements at a young age. OBJECTIVE: Review the literature on baseline PSA testing at a young age (≤60 yr) for the prediction of prostate cancer risk and prognosis. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: PubMed was searched for English-language publications on baseline PSA and prostate cancer for the period ending April 2011. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: In most published series, median PSA levels in the general male population range from approximately 0.4 to 0.7 ng/ml in men in their 40s and from approximately 0.7 to 1.0 ng/ml in men in their 50s. Evidence from both nonscreening and screening populations has demonstrated the predictive value of a single baseline PSA measurement for prostate cancer risk assessment. Specifically, men with baseline PSA levels above the age-group-specific median have a greater risk of prostate cancer diagnosis during the next 20-25 yr. Additional studies confirmed that higher baseline PSA levels at a young age are also associated with a greater risk of aggressive disease, metastasis, and disease-specific mortality many years later. CONCLUSIONS: Baseline PSA measurements at a young age are significant predictors of later prostate cancer diagnosis and disease-specific outcomes. Thus baseline PSA testing may be used for risk stratification and to guide screening protocols.
Loeb, S; Carter, HB; Catalona, WJ; Moul, JW; Schroder, FH
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