Vesicoureteral reflux in children with urachal anomalies.
OBJECTIVE: We report the largest known series of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) in children with urachal anomalies (UA). METHODS: Two institutions' records were reviewed for children with UA (1951‒2007). RESULTS: Of 30 girls and 36 boys with UA (34 urachal cysts, 14 patent urachus, 10 urachal diverticula, 7 urachal sinuses, and 1 unknown), 57 (86%) underwent surgical resection or drainage. A voiding cystourethrogram was obtained in 22 (33%). VUR was demonstrated in 14 of the 22 children (64%), and rates were similar among the various types of UA. The median age with versus without VUR was not different (1.3 vs 1.7 years, P=0.97). Of 24 refluxing renal units, classification was grade≤3 in 71%, 4‒5 in 12%, and unspecified in 17%. Four children (26%) underwent ureteroneocystostomy and 10 observed patients resolved spontaneously. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first series of VUR associated with UA. The increased incidence of VUR (64%) in this small subset of patients warrants prospective studies to determine if there is a positive correlation with UA. We believe thorough genitourinary and family histories are important when evaluating children with UA to help detect clinically significant VUR.
Fox, JA; McGee, SM; Routh, JC; Granberg, CF; Ashley, RA; Hutcheson, JC; Vandersteen, DR; Reinberg, YE; Kramer, SA
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