NF-kappaB cis-acting motifs of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) long terminal repeat regulate HIV transcription in human macrophages.
The role of NF-kappaB in the reactivation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) from latency in CD4 T lymphocytes is well documented. However, its role in driving HIV transcription in human macrophages, which contain a constitutive nuclear pool of NF-kappaB, is less well understood. In this study we have investigated the role that the constitutive pool of NF-kappaB and the NF-kappaB cis-acting motifs of the HIV long terminal repeat (LTR) play in regulating HIV transcription in human monocytic cells and primary macrophages. Inhibition of the constitutive nuclear pool of NF-kappaB (RelA and RelB) in the promonocytic U937 cell line using dominant-negative IkappaBalpha significantly decreases HIV replication. Moreover, it is demonstrated that in the differentiated monocytic cell line THP1, which contains a constitutive nuclear pool of NF-kappaB (RelB),an HIV provirus containing mutations of the kappaB cis-acting sites in the LTR is transcriptionally impaired. Reduction of the constitutive pool of NF-kappaB in human macrophages by an adenovirus vector expressing a dominant-negative IkappaBalpha also reduces HIV transcription. Lastly, mutation of the NF-kappaB cis-acting sites in the LTR of an R5 HIV provirus completely abrogates the first cycle of HIV transcription. These studies indicate that the cis-acting NF-kappaB motifs of the HIV LTR are critical in initiating HIV transcription in human macrophages and suggest that the constitutive nuclear pool of NF-kappaB is important in regulating HIV transcription in these cells.
Asin, S; Bren, GD; Carmona, EM; Solan, NJ; Paya, CV
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