Tubeless percutaneous nephrolithotomy--the new standard of care?
PURPOSE: Traditionally the placement of a nephrostomy tube at the conclusion of percutaneous nephrolithotomy is considered the standard of care. However, the need for nephrostomy tube placement has been questioned by numerous authors. We evaluated the literature regarding tubeless percutaneous nephrolithotomy, and determined potential candidates for tubeless percutaneous nephrolithotomy and whether this procedure can be considered the new standard of care for complex stone removal. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A MEDLINE search was conducted between May 1997 and January 2010 to detect studies reporting tubeless percutaneous nephrolithotomy. "Nephrolithiasis," "percutaneous nephrolithotomy," "tubeless" and "lithotripsy" were used as medical subject headings (MeSH) key words. Additional citations were identified by reviewing the reference lists of the included articles. All relevant articles were reviewed for indications, outcomes and complications. RESULTS: The data obtained from 50 reports document comparable complication rates between tubeless and standard percutaneous nephrolithotomy. Tubeless percutaneous nephrolithotomy demonstrated advantages such as less pain, less debilitation, less costs and a shorter hospital stay. Mean stone-free rates for tubeless percutaneous nephrolithotomy were as high as 89%. CONCLUSIONS: Tubeless percutaneous nephrolithotomy appears to be safe and efficacious in uneventful procedures, in children, in obese patients, in simultaneous bilateral procedures, in supracostal access and in renal units with coexisting anatomical anomalies. Nephrostomy tube placement should still be considered in certain cases such as those with more than 2 nephrostomy access tracts, those necessitating a second look and those with intraoperative complications such as significant bleeding or collecting system perforation.
Zilberman, DE; Lipkin, ME; de la Rosette, JJ; Ferrandino, MN; Mamoulakis, C; Laguna, MP; Preminger, GM
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