Gender differences in time to presentation for myocardial infarction before and after a national women's cardiovascular awareness campaign: a temporal analysis from the Can Rapid Risk Stratification of Unstable Angina Patients Suppress ADverse Outcomes with Early Implementation (CRUSADE) and the National Cardiovascular Data Registry Acute Coronary Treatment and Intervention Outcomes Network-Get with the Guidelines (NCDR ACTION Registry-GWTG).
BACKGROUND: In 2001-2002, the American Heart Association and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute initiated national campaigns with the aim of increasing women's awareness of their risk of heart disease, with particular focus on women aged 40 to 60 years. Our aim is to determine if these women's awareness campaigns were associated with a reduction in the time to hospital presentation for myocardial infarction in women. METHODS: The study population comprised patients who presented with a non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction in the Can Rapid Risk Stratification of Unstable Angina Patients Suppress ADverse Outcomes with Early Implementation of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Guidelines Registry and the National Cardiovascular Data Registry Acute Coronary Treatment and Intervention Outcomes Network-Get with the Guidelines registry. Analysis was done based on the introduction of the educational intervention: preintervention 2002-2003, intermediate 2004-2005, and post 2006-2007. RESULTS: Of 125,161 patients, 50,162 (40.1%) are women. The median time from symptom onset to presentation was significantly longer in women than men: 3 hours (interquartile range 1.4-7.6) versus 2.8 hours (interquartile range 1.3-7.2, P < .0001), a difference that remained significant after adjusting for clinical characteristics. There was no measurable reduction in the time from symptom onset to presentation over the period of the awareness campaigns: post- versus preintervention period (-0.18%, 95% CI -3.02% to 2.74%). After adjustment for covariates, women aged 40 to 60 years had a 3.46% longer time to presentation than men (95% CI 1.06-5.92, P = .005). CONCLUSIONS: There was no reduction in time from symptom onset to hospital presentation for myocardial infarction patients since national awareness campaigns in women were initiated, and a significant gender gap remains.
Diercks, DB; Owen, KP; Kontos, MC; Blomkalns, A; Chen, AY; Miller, C; Wiviott, S; Peterson, ED
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