Goldenhar syndrome associated with prenatal maternal Fluoxetine ingestion: Cause or coincidence?
Goldenhar syndrome, also known as oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum, is a complex, heterogeneous condition characterized by abnormal prenatal development of facial structures. We present the occurrence of Goldenhar syndrome in an infant born to a woman with a history of prenatal Fluoxetine ingestion throughout her pregnancy. Because this is the first reported case associating maternal Fluoxetine intake with fetal craniofacial malformations, a potential mechanism of injury is discussed. The propositus, a male born from nonconsanguinous parents, had facial asymmetry with right microtia and mandibular hypoplasia; he also had bilateral hypoplastic macula, scoliotic deformity of the thoracic spine, and ventricular septal defect. The mother was under treatment with Fluoxetine 20 mg/day prior to conception and maintained the same dosage throughout her pregnancy. The drug is a selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor, the most widely prescribed for the treatment of depression. The occurrence of developmental aberrations may be caused by a profound serotonin receptor suppressive state in utero leading to aberrant clinical manifestations of the first and second branchial arches. Despite the very many limitations of case reporting of teratogenic events, it remains an important source of information on which more advanced research is based.
Farra, C; Yunis, K; Mikati, M; Yazbeck, N; Majdalani, M; Awwad, J
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