Methodologies for the characterization, identification and quantification of S-nitrosylated proteins.
BACKGROUND: Protein S-nitrosylation plays a central role in signal transduction by nitric oxide (NO), and aberrant S-nitrosylation of specific proteins is increasingly implicated in disease. SCOPE OF REVIEW: Here, methodologies for the characterization, identification and quantification of SNO-proteins are reviewed, focusing on techniques suitable for the structural characterization and absolute quantification of isolated SNO-proteins, the identification and relative quantification of SNO-proteins from complex mixtures as well as the mass spectrometry-based identification and relative quantification of sites of S-nitrosylation (SNO-sites) in proteins. MAJOR CONCLUSIONS: Structural characterization of SNO-proteins by X-ray crystallography is increasingly being utilized to understand both the relationships between protein structure and Cys thiol reactivity as well as the consequences of S-nitrosylation on protein structure and function. New methods for the proteomic identification and quantification of SNO-proteins and SNO-sites have greatly impacted the ability to study protein S-nitrosylation in complex biological systems. GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE: The ability to identify and quantify SNO-proteins has long been rate-determining for scientific advances in the field of protein S-nitrosylation. Therefore, it is critical that investigators in the field have a good understand the utility and limitations of modern analytical techniques for SNO-protein analysis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Regulation of cellular processes by S-nitrosylation.
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