Initial experience with factor-Xa inhibition in percutaneous coronary intervention: the XaNADU-PCI Pilot.
BACKGROUND: Direct factor (F)Xa inhibition is an attractive method to limit thrombotic complications during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). OBJECTIVES: To investigate drug levels achieved, effect on coagulation markers, and preliminary efficacy and safety of several doses of DX-9065a, an intravenous, small molecule, direct, reversible FXa inhibitor during PCI. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients undergoing elective, native-vessel PCI (n = 175) were randomized 4 : 1 to open-label DX-9065a or heparin in one of four sequential stages. DX-9065a regimens in stages I-III were designed to achieve concentrations of > 100 ng mL-1, > 75 ng mL-1, and > 150 ng mL-1. Stage IV used the stage III regimen but included patients recently given heparin. RESULTS: At 15 min median (minimum) DX-9065a plasma levels were 192 (176), 122 (117), 334 (221), and 429 (231) ng mL-1 in stages I-IV, respectively. Median whole-blood international normalized ratios (INRs) were 2.6 (interquartile range 2.5, 2.7), 1.9 (1.8, 2.0), 3.2 (3.0, 4.1), and 3.8 (3.4, 4.6), and anti-FXa levels were 0.36 (0.32, 0.38), 0.33 (0.26, 0.39), 0.45 (0.41, 0.51), and 0.62 (0.52, 0.65) U mL-1, respectively. Stage II enrollment was stopped (n = 7) after one serious thrombotic event. Ischemic and bleeding events were rare and, in this small population, showed no clear relation to DX-9065a dose. CONCLUSIONS: Elective PCI is feasible using a direct FXa inhibitor for anticoagulation. Predictable plasma drug levels can be rapidly obtained with double-bolus and infusion DX-9065a dosing. Monitoring of DX-9065a may be possible using whole-blood INR. Direct FXa inhibition is a novel and potentially promising approach to anticoagulation during PCI that deserves further study.
Alexander, JH; Dyke, CK; Yang, H; Becker, RC; Hasselblad, V; Zillman, LA; Kleiman, NS; Hochman, JS; Berger, PB; Cohen, EA; Lincoff, AM; Saint-Jacques, H; Chetcuti, S; Burton, JR; Buergler, JM; Spence, FP; Shimoto, Y; Robertson, TL; Kunitada, S; Bovill, EG; Armstrong, PW; Harrington, RA; XaNADU-PCI PILOT Investigators,
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