Rapid optimization of enzyme substrates using defined substrate mixtures.
A strategy is described for the rapid optimization of kcat/Km for protease substrates. Selected positions of a given peptide substrate sequence are varied through synthesis with mixtures of amino acids. Incubation of the resulting peptide mixture with the enzyme of interest and analysis by high pressure liquid chromatography provides a direct measure of analogs with enhanced kcat/Km. High performance liquid chromatography/continuous flow fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry is used to assign structure to each peak in the chromatogram. As an example of the utility and efficiency of "substrate mapping" we describe optimization of the collagenase substrate Dnp-Pro-Leu-Gly-Leu-Trp-Ala-D-Arg-NH2 (where Dnp is dinitrophenyl) at the P'1 and P'2 positions. Six different mixtures were prepared for evaluation, representing the synthesis of 128 different synthetic substrates. "Substrate mapping" has led to Dnp-Pro-Leu-Gly-Cys(Me)-His-Ala-D-Arg-NH2, a substrate that possesses a 10-fold better kcat/Km than Dnp-Pro-Leu-Gly-Leu-Trp-Ala-D-Arg-NH2.
Berman, J; Green, M; Sugg, E; Anderegg, R; Millington, DS; Norwood, DL; McGeehan, J; Wiseman, J
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