Coping styles in heart failure patients with depressive symptoms.
OBJECTIVE: Elevated depressive symptoms have been linked to poorer prognosis in heart failure (HF) patients. Our objective was to identify coping styles associated with depressive symptoms in HF patients. METHODS: A total of 222 stable HF patients (32.75% female, 45.4% non-Hispanic black) completed multiple questionnaires. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) assessed depressive symptoms, Life Orientation Test (LOT-R) assessed optimism, ENRICHD Social Support Inventory (ESSI) and Perceived Social Support Scale (PSSS) assessed social support, and COPE assessed coping styles. Linear regression analyses were employed to assess the association of coping styles with continuous BDI scores. Logistic regression analyses were performed using BDI scores dichotomized into BDI<10 vs. BDI> or =10, to identify coping styles accompanying clinically significant depressive symptoms. RESULTS: In linear regression models, higher BDI scores were associated with lower scores on the acceptance (beta=-.14), humor (beta=-.15), planning (beta=-.15), and emotional support (beta=-.14) subscales of the COPE, and higher scores on the behavioral disengagement (beta=.41), denial (beta=.33), venting (beta=.25), and mental disengagement (beta=.22) subscales. Higher PSSS and ESSI scores were associated with lower BDI scores (beta=-.32 and -.25, respectively). Higher LOT-R scores were associated with higher BDI scores (beta=.39, P<.001). In logistical regression models, BDI> or =10 was associated with greater likelihood of behavioral disengagement (OR=1.3), denial (OR=1.2), mental disengagement (OR=1.3), venting (OR=1.2), and pessimism (OR=1.2), and lower perceived social support measured by PSSS (OR=.92) and ESSI (OR=.92). CONCLUSION: Depressive symptoms in HF patients are associated with avoidant coping, lower perceived social support, and pessimism. Results raise the possibility that interventions designed to improve coping may reduce depressive symptoms.
Trivedi, RB; Blumenthal, JA; O'Connor, C; Adams, K; Hinderliter, A; Dupree, C; Johnson, K; Sherwood, A
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