Noradrenaline-functionalized hyperbranched fluoropolymer-poly(ethylene glycol) cross-linked networks as dual-mode, anti-biofouling coatings.
The strategy of decorating antibiofouling hyperbranched fluoropolymer-poly(ethylene glycol) (HBFP-PEG) networks with a settlement sensory deterrent, noradrenaline (NA), and the results of biofouling assays are presented. This example of a dual-mode surface, which combines both passive and active modes of antibiofouling, works in synergy to improve the overall antibiofouling efficiency against barnacle cyprids. The HBFP-PEG polymer surface, prior to modification with NA, was analyzed by atomic force microscopy, and a significant distribution of topographical features was observed, with a nanoscopic roughness measurement of 110 ± 8 nm. NA attachment to the surface was probed by secondary ion mass spectrometry to quantify the extent of polymer chain-end substitution with NA, where a 3- to 4-fold increase in intensity for a fragment ion associated with NA was observed and 39% of the available sites for attachment were substituted. Cytoskeletal assays confirmed the activity of tethered NA on adhering oyster hemocytes. Settlement assays showed deterrence toward barnacle cyprid settlement, while not compromising the passive biofouling resistance of the surface. This robust strategy demonstrates a methodology for the incorporation of actively antibiofouling moieties onto a passively antibiofouling network.
Imbesi, PM; Gohad, NV; Eller, MJ; Orihuela, B; Rittschof, D; Schweikert, EA; Mount, AS; Wooley, KL
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