An automatic CT-guided adaptive radiation therapy technique by online modification of multileaf collimator leaf positions for prostate cancer.
PURPOSE: To propose and evaluate online adaptive radiation therapy (ART) using in-room computed tomography (CT) imaging that detects changes in the target position and shape of the prostate and seminal vesicles (SVs) and then automatically modifies the multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf pairs in a slice-by-slice fashion. METHODS AND MATERIALS: For intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) using a coplanar beam arrangement, each MLC leaf pair projects onto a specific anatomic slice. The proposed strategy assumes that shape deformation is a function of only the superior-inferior (SI) position. That is, there is no shape change within a CT slice, but each slice can be displaced in the anteroposterior (AP) or right-left (RL) direction relative to adjacent slices. First, global shifts (in SI, AP, and RL directions) were calculated by three-dimensional (3D) registration of the bulk of the prostate in the treatment planning CT images with the daily CT images taken immediately before treatment. Local shifts in the AP direction were then found using slice-by-slice registration, in which the CT slices were individually registered. The translational shift within a slice could then be projected to a translational shift in the position of the corresponding MLC leaf pair for each treatment segment for each gantry angle. Global shifts in the SI direction were accounted for by moving the open portal superiorly or inferiorly by an integral number of leaf pairs. The proposed slice-by-slice registration technique was tested by using daily CT images from 46 CT image sets (23 each from 2 patients) taken before the standard delivery of IMRT for prostate cancer. A dosimetric evaluation was carried out by using an 8-field IMRT plan. RESULTS: The shifts and shape change of the prostate and SVs could be separated into 3D global shifts in the RL, AP, and SI directions, plus local shifts in the AP direction, which were different for each CT slice. The MLC leaf positions were successfully modified to compensate for these global shifts and local shape variations. The ART method improved geometric coverage of the prostate and SVs compared with the couch-shift method, particularly for the superior part of the prostate and all the SVs, for which the interfraction shape change was the largest. The dosimetric comparison showed that the ART method covered the target better and reduced the rectal dose more than a simple couch-translation method. CONCLUSIONS: ART corrected for interfraction changes in the position and shape of the prostate and SVs and gave dose distributions that were considerably closer to the planned dose distributions than could be achieved with simple alignment strategies that neglect shape change. The ART proposed in this investigation requires neither contouring of the daily CT images nor extensive calculations; therefore, it may prove to be an effective and clinically practical solution to the problem of interfraction shape changes.
Court, LE; Dong, L; Lee, AK; Cheung, R; Bonnen, MD; O'Daniel, J; Wang, H; Mohan, R; Kuban, D
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