Effect of case selection on the performance of computer-aided detection schemes.
The choice of clinical cases used to train and test a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) scheme can affect the test results (i.e., error rate). In this study, we deliberately modified the components of our testing database to study the effects of this modification on measured performance. Using a computerized scheme for the automated detection of breast masses from mammograms, it was found that the sensitivity of the scheme ranged between 26% and 100% (at a false positive rate of 1.0 per image) depending on the cases used to test the scheme. Even a 20% change in the cases comprising the database can reduce the measured sensitivity by 15%-25%. Because of the strong dependence of measured performance on the testing database, it is difficult to estimate reliably the accuracy of a CAD scheme. Furthermore, it is questionable to compare different CAD schemes when different cases are used for testing. Sharing databases, creating a common database, or using a quantitative measure to characterize databases are possible solutions to this problem. However, none of these solutions exists or is practiced at present. Therefore, as a short-term solution, it is recommended that the method used for selecting cases, and histograms or mean and standard deviations of relevant image features be reported whenever performance data are presented.
Nishikawa, RM; Giger, ML; Doi, K; Metz, CE; Yin, FF; Vyborny, CJ; Schmidt, RA
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