Depression and clinical outcomes in heart failure: an OPTIMIZE-HF analysis.
BACKGROUND: Depression is a risk factor of excessive morbidity and mortality in heart failure. We examined in-hospital treatment and postdischarge outcomes in hospitalized heart failure patients with a documented history of depression from the Organized Program to Initiate Lifesaving Treatment in Hospitalized Patients with Heart Failure. METHODS: We identified patient factors associated with depression history and evaluated the association of depression with hospital treatments and mortality, and early postdischarge mortality, emergency care, and rehospitalization. RESULTS: In 48,612 patients from 259 hospitals, depression history was present in 10.6% and occurred more often in females, whites, and those with common heart failure comorbidities, including chronic pulmonary obstructive disease (36% vs 27%), anemia (27% vs 16.5%), insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (20% vs 16%), and hyperlipidemia (38% vs 31%), all P <.001. Patients with depression history were less likely to receive coronary interventions and cardiac devices, all P <.01; or be referred to outpatient disease management programs, P <.001. Length of hospital stay was longer with depression history (7.0 vs 6.4 days, P <.001). In 5791 patients followed-up at 60-90 days postdischarge, those with depression history had higher mortality (8.8% vs 6.4%; P=.025). After multivariable modeling, depression history remained a predictor of length of hospital stay, P <.001 and postdischarge mortality, P=.02. CONCLUSIONS: Depression history at heart failure hospitalization may be a predictor of prolonged length of hospital stay, less use of cardiac procedures and postdischarge disease management, and increased 60-90 day mortality. Patients with depression might represent a vulnerable group in which improved use of evidence-based treatment should be considered.
Albert, NM; Fonarow, GC; Abraham, WT; Gheorghiade, M; Greenberg, BH; Nunez, E; O'Connor, CM; Stough, WG; Yancy, CW; Young, JB
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