Outcomes by race and etiology of patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction.
Previous studies have shown that blacks have worse long-term outcomes than whites who have systolic heart failure. The reasons for these racial differences remain unclear. We investigated the effect of race and etiology of heart failure on outcomes of patients who had left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction. We studied records of 1,977 patients (27% black) who underwent cardiac catheterization who had New York Heart Association class II to IV symptoms and a LV ejection fraction <40%. Adjusted Cox's proportional hazards regression models were examined for the end points of mortality, rehospitalization, and a composite of the 2. Black versus white patients were younger (median age 56 vs 63 years, p <0.01), more often were women (49% vs 33%, p <0.01), had diabetes (37% vs 31%, p = 0.02), and hypertension (75% vs 56%, p <0.01). Black patients were less likely to have significant coronary artery disease by angiography (41% vs 69%, p <0.01). Race was not an independent predictor of mortality (hazard ratio 1.09, 95% confidence interval 0.93 to 1.28, p = 0.27). After adjusted survival curves were stratified by race and etiology, the estimates indicated that among those patients who had nonischemic LV dysfunction, blacks appeared to have worse survival than whites. Thus, we found no racial differences in the long-term mortality risk of patients who had symptomatic LV systolic dysfunction. In conclusion, after stratifying by ischemic and nonischemic etiologies, we found decreased survival in blacks who had a nonischemic etiology compared with whites. There were no racial differences in rehospitalization between patients who had ischemic LV systolic dysfunction and those who did not.
Thomas, KL; East, MA; Velazquez, EJ; Tuttle, RH; Shaw, LK; O'Connor, CM; Peterson, ED
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