Temperament moderates associations between exposure to stress and children's externalizing problems.
The interaction between a temperament profile (four groups determined by high vs. low resistance to control [unmanageability] and unadaptability [novelty distress]) and family stress in predicting externalizing problems at school in children followed from kindergarten through eighth grade (ages 5-13) was investigated. The sample consisted of 556 families (290 boys). At Time 1 just prior to kindergarten, mothers retrospectively reported on their child's temperament during infancy. Each year, mothers reported stress and teachers reported children's externalizing problems. Temperament profile was tested as a moderator of the stress-externalizing association for various time periods. Results indicated that the combination of high resistance to control and high unadaptability strengthens the stress-externalizing association. Findings are discussed in terms of possible underlying mechanisms.
Schermerhorn, AC; Bates, JE; Goodnight, JA; Lansford, JE; Dodge, KA; Pettit, GS
Volume / Issue
Start / End Page
Pubmed Central ID
Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)
International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)