Intonation facilitates contrast resolution: Evidence from Japanese adults and 6-year olds
Two eye-tracking experiments tested how pitch prominence on a prenominal adjective affects contrast resolution in Japanese adult and 6-year old listeners. Participants located two animals in succession on displays with multiple colored animals. In Experiment 1, adults' fixations to the contrastive target (pink cat → GREEN cat) were facilitated by a pitch expansion on the adjective while infelicitous pitch expansion (purple rabbit → ORANGE monkey) led to a garden-path effect, i.e., frequent fixations to the incorrect target (orange rabbit). In 6-year olds, only the facilitation effect surfaced. Hypothesizing that the interval between the two questions may not have given enough time for children to overcome their tendency to perseverate on the first target, Experiment 2 used longer intervals and confirmed a garden-path effect in 6-year olds. These results demonstrate that Japanese 6-year olds can make use of contrast-marking pitch prominence when time allows an establishment of proper discourse representation. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.
Ito, K; Jincho, N; Minai, U; Yamane, N; Mazuka, R
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