Molecular evolution and diversification of the moss family Daltoniaceae (Hookeriales, Bryophyta) with emphasis on the unravelling of the phylogeny of Distichophyllum and its allies
Phylogenetic relationships in Daltoniaceae (∼200 species in 14 genera) are inferred from nucleotide sequences from five genes, representing all genomic compartments, using parsimony, likelihood and Bayesian methods. Alternative classifications for Daltoniaceae have favoured traits from either sporophytes or gametophytes; phylogenetic transitions in gametophytic leaf limbidia and sporophytic exostome ornamentation were evaluated using ancestral state reconstruction to assess the levels of conflict between these generations. Elimbate leaves and the cross-striate exostome are reconstructed as plesiomorphic states. Limbate leaves and papillose exostomes evolved at least two and six times, respectively, without reversals. The evolution of leaf limbidia is relatively conserved, but exostome ornamentation is highly homoplasious, indicating that superficial similarity in peristomes gives unreliable approximations of phylogenetic relatedness. Our phylogenetic analyses show that Achrophyllum and Calyptrochaeta are reciprocally monophyletic. Within core Daltoniaceae, relationships among taxa with elimbate leaves are generally well understood. However, taxa with limbate leaves form a monophyletic group, but resolved subclades correspond to biogeographical entities, rather than to traditional concepts of genera. Daltonia (∼21 species), Distichophyllum (∼100 species) and Leskeodon (∼20 species) are polyphyletic. Seven nomenclatural changes are proposed here. As the current taxonomy of Daltoniaceae lacks phylogenetic consistency, critical generic revisions are needed. © 2012 The Linnean Society of London.
Ho, B-C; Pokorny, L; Tan, BC; Frahm, J-P; Shaw, AJ; Quandt, D
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