Phylogenetic analyses of morphological evolution in the gametophyte and sporophyte generations of the moss order Hookeriales (Bryopsida).
Morphological characters from the gametophyte and sporophyte generations have been used in land plants to infer relationships and construct classifications, but sporophytes provide the vast majority of data for the systematics of vascular plants. In bryophytes both generations are well developed and characters from both are commonly used to classify these organisms. However, because morphological traits of gametophytes and sporophytes can have different genetic bases and experience different selective pressures, taxonomic emphasis on one generation or the other may yield incongruent classifications. The moss order Hookeriales has a controversial taxonomic history because previous classifications have focused almost exclusively on either gametophytes or sporophytes. The Hookeriales provide a model for comparing morphological evolution in gametophytes and sporophytes, and its impact on alternative classification systems. In this study we reconstruct relationships among mosses that are or have been included in the Hookeriales based on sequences from five gene regions, and reconstruct morphological evolution of six sporophyte and gametophyte traits that have been used to differentiate families and genera. We found that the Hookeriales, as currently circumscribed, are monophyletic and that both sporophyte and gametophyte characters are labile. We documented parallel changes and reversals in traits from both generations. This study addresses the general issue of morphological reversals to ancestral states, and resolves novel relationships in the Hookeriales.
Pokorny, L; Ho, B-C; Frahm, J-P; Quandt, D; Shaw, AJ
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