Ozone inhalation promotes CX3CR1-dependent maturation of resident lung macrophages that limit oxidative stress and inflammation.
Inhalation of ambient ozone alters populations of lung macrophages. However, the impact of altered lung macrophage populations on the pathobiology of ozone is poorly understood. We hypothesized that subpopulations of macrophages modulate the response to ozone. We exposed C57BL/6 mice to ozone (2 ppm × 3 h) or filtered air. At 24 h after exposure, the lungs were harvested and digested and the cells underwent flow cytometry. Analysis revealed a novel macrophage subset present in ozone-exposed mice, which were distinct from resident alveolar macrophages and identified by enhanced Gr-1(+) expression [Gr-1 macrophages (Gr-1 Macs)]. Further analysis showed that Gr-1(+) Macs exhibited high expression of MARCO, CX3CR1, and NAD(P)H:quinone oxioreductase 1. Gr-1(+) Macs were present in the absence of CCR2, suggesting that they were not derived from a CCR2-dependent circulating intermediate. Using PKH26-PCL to label resident phagocytic cells, we demonstrated that Gr-1 Macs were derived from resident lung cells. This new subset was diminished in the absence of CX3CR1. Interestingly, CX3CR1-null mice exhibited enhanced responses to ozone, including increased airway hyperresponsiveness, exacerbated neutrophil influx, accumulation of 8-isoprostanes and protein carbonyls, and increased expression of cytokines (CXCL2, IL-1β, IL-6, CCL2, and TNF-α). Our results identify a novel subset of lung macrophages, which are derived from a resident intermediate, are dependent upon CX3CR1, and appear to protect the host from the biological response to ozone.
Tighe, RM; Li, Z; Potts, EN; Frush, S; Liu, N; Gunn, MD; Foster, WM; Noble, PW; Hollingsworth, JW
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