Effect of furosemide infusion on renal hemodynamics and angiogenesis gene expression in acute renal ischemia/reperfusion.
Loop diuretics are known to affect renal hemodynamics and possibly gene transcription, but the specific effect of furosemide on renal angiogenesis gene expression after acute ischemia is not known. We utilized an acute renal failure model in rats to test the hypothesis that furosemide improves renal hemodynamics and alters the transcriptional signature of acute ischemic nephropathy. Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized by the intraperitoneal administration of 50 mg/kg urethane. Animals were divided into four groups (n = 6 each): (1) sham-operated group infused with saline; (2) sham-operated group infused with 30 microg/kg/hr furosemide (equivalent to a human dosage of 2 mg/hr); (3) unilateral renal ischemia (1 hr, left renal artery cross-clamping) followed by 6 hr of reperfusion; and (4) renal ischemia/ reperfusion (I/R) with furosemide. Renal artery blood flow (RBF), renal cortical perfusion (RCP), and renal corticomedullary tissue oxygen tension (PO2) were recorded throughout. Following 6 hr of reperfusion, left kidney RNA was used to probe microarrays. Gene expression was measured as percent positive control and confirmed using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Physiologic data were analyzed by calculating area under the curve, and gene expression data were compared by using multiple analysis of variance with Tukey's post-hoc tests. Furosemide significantly increased RBF (P < 0.05) and PO2 (P < 0.05) in postischemic kidneys. Furosemide attenuated nine of the 13 ischemia-induced and 41 of 78 ischemia-suppressed angiogenesis-related genes. This attenuation was statistically significant (P < 0.05) for 17 I/R injury-suppressed genes. Data from this rat model of ischemic nephropathy suggest that furosemide improves renal hemodynamics and attenuates ischemia-related changes in gene expression.
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