Acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease after cardiac surgery.
Kidney dysfunction is common after cardiac surgery and predicts mortality risk and poorer long-term outcome, particularly when acute injury superimposes upon chronic kidney disease. Numerous insults contribute to perioperative renal impairment including major surgical trespass, procedure-specific interventions (eg, deep hypothermic circulatory arrest), and postoperative complications. Regardless of cause, evidence supports a role for renal impairment and accumulation of "uremic toxins" as direct contributors to adverse outcome. No one has yet characterized a loss of renal function small enough to be insignificant. Despite considerable research focus, progress in development of interventions aimed at perioperative renoprotection has been disappointing. However, practice modifications can influence the likelihood of acute kidney injury, and several recent advances provide hope for the future. We review pathophysiologic understanding of this disorder; evaluate the confusing relationship (causal v epiphenomena) among acute kidney injury, chronic kidney disease, and adverse outcome after cardiac surgery; and provide an evidence-based assessment of the conduct of cardiac surgery and renoprotection strategies.
Stafford-Smith, M; Patel, UD; Phillips-Bute, BG; Shaw, AD; Swaminathan, M
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