Influence of stereotyping in smoking cessation counseling by primary care residents.
This study examined racial differences in primary care residents' rates of addressing smoking cessation. We expected residents to have higher rates of addressing cessation with White female patients as compared with African-American or Hispanic female patients, due, in part, to residents having higher outcome expectancies, self-efficacy, lower barriers, and less reliance on stereotypes. Residents (N = 90) were an average of 31 years old; two-thirds were White internal medicine residents. Residents viewed a video of a lower-middle class White, African-American, or Hispanic female interacting with her physician about stomach pain. Results indicate that residents were very likely to address smoking cessation, regardless of patients' race. Compared to residents assigned to an ethnic minority patient, residents assigned to the White patient were less likely to believe the patient would follow their advice (P < .03) and also perceived more barriers to address smoking cessation (P < .04). Reliance on the stereotype of Whites mediated the racial difference in outcome expectancies. Implications are that residents may be relying on stereotypes when they assess lower-middle class White female patients' receptivity to smoking cessation advice. Future research on the role of stereotyping in medical settings is warranted.
Pollak, KI; Arredondo, EM; Yarnall, KSH; Lipkus, I; Myers, E; McNeilly, M; Costanzo, P
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