Chlorpyrifos oxon interacts with the mammalian multidrug resistance protein, P-glycoprotein.
Multidrug resistance (MDR) to chemically unrelated therapeutic anticancer agents in mammalian cells is mediated by the overexpression of an ATP-dependent 150- to 180-kD membrane glycoprotein P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Although the complete physiological role of P-gp is unknown, it is proposed to function in cellular detoxification of xenobiotics. In this study, we investigated whether the organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos (O,O-diethyl O-3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinyl phosphorothioate) or its metabolites interact with P-gp. Immunohistochemical analysis of tissues from male Fischer 344 rats administered chlorpyrifos (7.6 mg/kg gavage) showed increased P-gp expression in the kidney, adrenal, liver, jejunum, and stomach (tissues associated with elimination of xenobiotics), compared to control tissues. The most prominent increase was detected in the large bile ducts of the liver and the proximal tubule region of the kidney. P-gp expression was increased throughout the adrenal medulla and cortex, while a moderate increase was detected in the epithelial layers of the stomach and jejunum. To examine further the interaction between chlorpyrifos and P-gp, we evaluated whether chlorpyrifos or its active metabolite, chlorpyrifos oxon, could inhibit [3H]azidopine labeling of P-gp in MDR1 baculovirus-infected insect Sf9 cells. A concentration-dependent inhibition of [3H]azidopine labeling of P-gp was detected with chlorpyrifos oxon, while significant inhibition was not detected with chlorpyrifos. To correlate the binding of chlorpyrifos oxon to P-gp with a biochemical effect, we examined its ability to stimulate P-gp-mediated ATPase activity in these Sf9 cells. Chlorpyrifos oxon stimulated P-gp ATPase activity 1.75 times that of the positive control (10 microM verapamil). Taken together, these results suggest that chlorpyrifos oxon interacts with P-gp, and support the hypothesis that P-gp may play a role in the cellular detoxification of insecticides in mammalian tissues. To our knowledge this is the first report of an organophosphorus insecticide interacting with and increasing the expression of P-gp.
Lanning, CL; Fine, RL; Sachs, CW; Rao, US; Corcoran, JJ; Abou-Donia, MB
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