Neurotoxicity of continuous (90 days) inhalation of technical grade methyl butyl ketone in hens.
Neurotoxicity was produced in 1-yr-old hens (five hens per treatment) by continual 90-d exposure in inhalation chambers to atmospheres containing 50, 100, 200, or 400 ppm technical grade methyl butyl ketone (MBK) containing 70% methyl n-butyl ketone (MnBK) and 30% methyl isobutyl ketone (MiBK). A 30-d observation period followed. Severity of clinical condition and progression or improvement of neurological deficit signs were dependent on the concentration of MBK and duration of exposure. Hens exposed to the two highest levels developed ataxia and paralysis; they died or were sacrificed before the designated exposure period ended. The intermediate level of MBK (100 ppm) caused severe ataxia; most treated hens showed no change in clinical condition during the observation period. Hens exposed to 50 ppm exhibited gross ataxia, with most demonstrating partial regression of neurological deficit after the exposure ceased. Hens exposed to the lowest tested level (10 ppm) remained normal. Only hens exposed to 400 or 200 ppm showed significant weight loss. Some hens from the 50-400 ppm treatment groups showed unequivocal histopathologic changes in the spinal cord and peripheral nerves. Severity of histopathologic changes depended on the level and duration of MBK exposure. These changes were characterized by excessive swelling, phagocytosis, degeneration, and demyelination of the axons.
Abdo, KM; Graham, DG; Timmons, PR; Abou-Donia, MB
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