Delayed neurotoxic, late acute and cholinergic effects of S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF): subchronic (90 days) administration in hens.
Subchdronic administration of S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF) caused 3 toxicologic effects in hens, depending upon route of administration. Small delay oral doses (0.5--20 mg/kg) of DEF produced ataxia, which progressed to paralysis and death in some birds. Large daily oral doses (40 and 80 mg/kg) caused a 'late acute' effect 4 days after administration. The clinical signs of the late acute effect were identical to those produced by n-butyl mercaptan (nBM), a hydrolytic product of DEF, and were not relieved by atropine sulfate. The late acute effect of DEF overlapped with the clinical signs of delayed neurotoxicity. These hens died early, and while one hen showed histopathological lesions in peripheral nerves, another showed unequivocal lesions in the central nervous system. Topical application of daily doses of DEF consistently produced delayed neurotoxicity in the absence of late acute poisonining and was characterized by degeneration of the central and peripheral nerve tissues. Orally administered DEF was rapidly metabolized in the gastrointestinal tract to nBM, which apparently caused the late acute toxic effect. Topically administered DEF, which was not subjected to gastrointestinal tract hydrolysis, caused delayed neurotoxicity but did not produce a late acute effect.
Abou-Donia, MB; Graham, DG; Abdo, KM; Komeil, AA
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