Psychometric properties of the hope scale: A confirmatory factor analysis


Journal Article

Confirmatory factor analysis was employed to test several psychometric hypotheses regarding the Hope Scale. Across four large samples of college students, a two-factor (agency and pathways) model of hope reproduced the observed data consistently better than did a one-factor model. Support also was found for the tenability of a higher-order latent construct overarching these two factors. Neither the assumption of parallel nor tau-equivalent measures were met, however, suggesting that the items within a given factor are not interchangeable. Reliability estimates of (1) the items as indicators of the first-order construct, and (2) the first-order constructs as indicators of the higher-order latent variable also are presented. Support for the higher-order two-factor model of hope also was found for both men and women. Some support also emerged for invariance of first- and second-order loadings, though this was not a consistent finding. Implications for the quantitative application of the Hope Scale are discussed. © 1993 Academic Press, Inc.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Babyak, MA; Snyder, CR; Yoshinobu, L

Published Date

  • January 1, 1993

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 27 / 2

Start / End Page

  • 154 - 169

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1095-7251

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 0092-6566

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1006/jrpe.1993.1011

Citation Source

  • Scopus