PAR-1 inhibitors: a novel class of antiplatelet agents for the treatment of patients with atherothrombosis.
Stroke and myocardial infarction are leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Typically, these events are triggered by the rupture or erosion of "vulnerable" atherosclerotic plaque, a phenomenon termed atherothrombosis.Three platelet activation pathways are presumed to be particularly important in the genesis of atherothrombosis and are triggered by 1) cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-1 mediated thromboxane A2 (TXA2) synthesis and activation via the TXA2 receptor, 2) adenosine diphosphate (ADP) via the P2Y12 receptor, and 3) thrombin via the protease activated receptor (PAR)-1.Despite the efficacy of aspirin and of a growing family of P2Y12 receptor antagonists on the first 2 pathways, major cardiovascular events continue to occur in patients with coronary and cerebrovascular disease, suggesting that thrombin-mediated platelet activation may contribute to these adverse events.Recently, a novel class of antiplatelet agents able to inhibit thrombin-mediated platelet activation has been developed, PAR-1 inhibitors. In this chapter, we will discuss the rationale underlying the development of this novel class of agents focus on the two drugs in the most advanced stages of development: vorapaxar (SCH530348) and atopaxar (E5555).
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