A randomized controlled trial of intravenous tissue plasminogen activator and early intravenous heparin in acute myocardial infarction.
To evaluate the coronary thrombolytic efficacy of tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) and early intravenous heparin, 134 patients with acute myocardial infarction were randomly assigned to combination therapy or t-PA only. At a median of 2.78 hours from symptom onset, 64 patients received both t-PA (1.5 mg/kg/4 hr) and a bolus of 10,000 units heparin, whereas 70 patients received t-PA alone at the same dose. All patients underwent coronary angiography 90 minutes after initiation of therapy to determine infarct vessel patency status, after which time the control group patients were eligible to receive heparin. Baseline demographic and angiographic characteristics were similar for the groups. Infarct vessel patency was 50 of 63 (79%) for combination t-PA and heparin and 54 of 68 (79%) for t-PA alone. Bleeding complications, as reflected by need for transfusion, were similar in the two groups: 13% in the patients treated with t-PA and heparin compared with 18% in patients treated with t-PA only (p = 0.53). The only intracranial hemorrhage in the trial occurred in a patient initially treated without heparin. Fibrinogen at 50 minutes after therapy was 32% decreased from baseline for the t-PA and heparin-treated patients compared with a 39% decrease in the control group. Predischarge left ventricular ejection fraction was similar for the two groups: 49.0 +/- 10.1% versus 50.2 +/- 11.9% for combined versus t-PA only therapy, respectively. We conclude that early intravenous heparin does not facilitate the fibrinolytic effect of t-PA at the doses tested.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Topol, EJ; George, BS; Kereiakes, DJ; Stump, DC; Candela, RJ; Abbottsmith, CW; Aronson, L; Pickel, A; Boswick, JM; Lee, KL
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