Type I glycogen storage disease: kidney involvement, pathogenesis and its treatment.
Type I glycogen storage disease (GSD-I) is due to the deficiency of glucose-6-phosphatase activity in the liver, kidney and intestine. Although kidney enlargement occurs in GSD-I, renal disease has not been considered a major problem until recently. In older patients (more than 20 years of age) whose GSD-I disease has been ineffectively treated, virtually all have disturbed renal function, manifested by persistent proteinuria; many also have hypertension, renal stones, altered creatinine clearance or a progressive renal insufficiency. Glomerular hyperfiltration is seen in the early stage of the renal dysfunction and can occur before proteinuria. In younger GSD-I patients, the hyperfiltration is usually the only renal abnormality found; and, in some patients, microalbuminuria develops before clinical proteinuria. The predominant underlying renal pathology is focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Renal stones and/or nephrocalcinosis are also common findings. Amyloidosis and Fanconi-like syndrome can occur, but rarely. The risk factors for developing the glomerulosclerosis in GSD-I include hyperfiltration, hypertension, hyperlipidemia and hyperuricemia. Dietary therapy with cornstarch and/or nasogastric infusion of glucose, aimed at maintaining normoglycemia, corrects metabolic abnormalities and improves the proximal renal tubular function. Long-term trial will be needed to assess whether the dietary therapy may prevent the evolution or the progression of the renal disease.
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