Hyperglycaemia associated with lactic acidaemia in a renal allograft recipient with type I glycogen storage disease.
Renal disease is a frequent and serious complication of type I glycogen storage disease. A type I glycogen storage disease patient with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and progressive renal insufficiency underwent a renal allograft transplantation. Despite the same cornstarch therapy, the post-transplantation course was complicated by worsening of the metabolic control manifested by exacerbated lactic acidaemia and hyperlipidaemia. This lactic acidaemia was remarkable for its association with hyperglycaemia. Hyperglycaemia accompanied by lactic acidaemia is strikingly unusual in type I glycogen storage disease, since this is a disease characterized by hypoglycaemia and an inverse relationship between blood glucose concentration and lactate levels. Both fasting insulin and C-peptide levels in the patient were greater than similar age-matched type I glycogen storage disease controls, indicating hyperinsulinaemia. The most likely mechanism responsible for the combined hyperglycaemia and lactic acidaemia was insulin resistance due to glucocorticoid treatment, instituted for immunosuppression. The hyperglycaemia associated with the lactic acidaemia was transient and resolved with steroid tapering. The exacerbated hyperlipidaemia, however, persisted after renal transplantation. Type I glycogen storage disease patients may be prone to glucocorticoid-induced insulin resistance, since the cellular metabolism in these patients may already be compromised with ineffective insulin action and/or reduced insulin output.
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