Geographic information system-based screening for TB, HIV, and syphilis (GIS-THIS): a cross-sectional study.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the feasibility and case detection rate of a geographic information systems (GIS)-based integrated community screening strategy for tuberculosis, syphilis, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DESIGN: Prospective cross-sectional study of all participants presenting to geographic hot spot screenings in Wake County, North Carolina. METHODS: The residences of tuberculosis, HIV, and syphilis cases incident between 1/1/05-12/31/07 were mapped. Areas with high densities of all 3 diseases were designated "hot spots." Combined screening for tuberculosis, HIV, and syphilis were conducted at the hot spots; participants with positive tests were referred to the health department. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Participants (N = 247) reported high-risk characteristics: 67% previously incarcerated, 40% had lived in a homeless shelter, and 29% had a history of crack cocaine use. However, 34% reported never having been tested for HIV, and 41% did not recall prior tuberculin skin testing. Screening identified 3% (8/240) of participants with HIV infection, 1% (3/239) with untreated syphilis, and 15% (36/234) with latent tuberculosis infection. Of the eight persons with HIV, one was newly diagnosed and co-infected with latent tuberculosis; he was treated for latent TB and linked to an HIV provider. Two other HIV-positive persons had fallen out of care, and as a result of the study were linked back into HIV clinics. Of 27 persons with latent tuberculosis offered therapy, nine initiated and three completed treatment. GIS-based screening can effectively penetrate populations with high disease burden and poor healthcare access. Linkage to care remains challenging and will require creative interventions to impact morbidity.
Goswami, ND; Hecker, EJ; Vickery, C; Ahearn, MA; Cox, GM; Holland, DP; Naggie, S; Piedrahita, C; Mosher, A; Torres, Y; Norton, BL; Suchindran, S; Park, PH; Turner, D; Stout, JE
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