Factors that influence siderophoremediated iron bioavailability: catalysis of interligand iron (III) transfer from ferrioxamine B to EDTA by hydroxamic acids.
Deferriferrioxamine B (H3DFB) is a linear trihydroxamic acid siderophore with molecular formula NH2(CH2)5[N(OH)C(O)(CH2)2C(O)NH(CH2)5]2N(OH)C(O)CH3 that forms a kinetically and thermodynamically stable complex with iron(III), ferrioxamine B. Under the conditions of our study (pH = 4.30, 25 degrees C), ferrioxamine B, Fe(HDFB)+, is hexacoordinated and the terminal amine group is protonated. Addition of simple hydroxamic acids, R1C(O)N(OH)R2 (R1 = CH3, R2 = H; R1 = C6H5, R2 = H; R1 = R2 = CH3), to an aqueous solution of ferrioxamine B at pH = 4.30, 25.0 degrees C, I = 2.0, results in the formation of ternary complexes Fe(H2DFB)A+ and Fe(H3DFB)A2+, and tris complexes FeA3, where A- represents the bidendate hydroxamate anion R1C(O)N(O)R2-. The addition of a molar excess of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) to an aqueous solution of ferrioxamine B at pH 4.30 results in a slow exchange of iron(III) to eventually completely form Fe(EDTA)- and H4DFB+. The addition of a hydroxamic acid, HA, catalyzes the rate of this iron exchange reaction: (formula; see text) A four parallel path mechanism is proposed for reaction (1) in which catalysis occurs via transient formation of the ternary and tris complexes Fe(H2DFB) A+, Fe(H3DFB)A2+, and FeA3. Rate and equilibrium constants for the various reaction paths to products were obtained and the influence of hydroxamic acid structure on catalytic efficiency is discussed. The importance of a low energy pathway for iron dissociation from a siderophore complex in influencing microbial iron bio-availability is discussed. The system represented by reaction (1) is proposed as a possible model for in vivo catalyzed release of iron from its siderophore complex at the cell wall or interior, where EDTA represents the intracellular storage depot or membrane-bound carrier and HA represents a low molecular weight hydroxamate-based metabolite capable of catalyzing interligand iron exchange.
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