The effects of paraquat on microsomal oxygen reduction and antioxidant defenses in ribbed mussels (Geukensia demissa) and wedge clams (rangia cuneata)
The hepatopancreae of the ribbed mussel, Geukensia demissa, and the wedge clam, Rangia cuneata, were examined for their ability to catalyze the reduction/oxidation cycling of the bipyridyl herbicide paraquat. In vitro studies indicated a dose-dependent increase in the rate of superoxide anion (O2-) generation in microsomal fractions supplemented with NADPH; the highest concentration of paraquat employed (4 mm) elicited an 81 % increase in cytochrome c reduction in G. demissa and a 135% increase in R. cuneata. In both .species, cytochrome c reduction was inhibited by the addition of exogenous superoxide dismutase (SOD). For in vivo studies, a single application of paraquat (0·5, 1·0 or 2·0 mm) was added to aerated salt-water aquaria containing G. demissa. Biochemical analyses of antioxidant enzymes, reduced glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation were performed in hepatopancreatic tissue after exposures of 6, 12, 24 and 36 h. Results support the hypotheses that these bivalves can activate redox cycling compounds and demonstrate in vivo responses typical of oxidative stress as observed in other organisms. © 1988.
Wenning, RJ; Di Giulio, RT
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