[Staphylococcus aureus infections: new challenges from an old pathogen].
(English Abstract;Journal Article;Review)
Staphylococcus aureus is a versatile organism with several virulent characteristics and resistance mechanisms at its disposal. It is also a significant cause of a wide range of infectious diseases in humans. S. aureus often causes life-threatening deep seated infections like bacteremia, endocarditis and pneumonia. While traditionally confined mostly to the hospital setting, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is now rapidly becoming rampant in the community. Community-acquired MRSA is particularly significant because of its potential for unchecked spread within households and its propensity for causing serious skin and pulmonary infections. Because of the unfavorable outcome of many MRSA infections with the standard glycopeptide therapy, new antimicrobial agents belonging to various classes have been introduced and have been evaluated in clinical trials for their efficacy in treating resistant staphylococcal infections. A number of preventive strategies have also been suggested to contain the spread of such infections. In this review, we address the recent changes in the epidemiology of S. aureus and their impact on the clinical manifestations and management of serious infections. We also discuss new treatment modalities for MRSA infections and emphasize the importance of preventive approaches.
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