Initial decline in hemoglobin during neoadjuvant hormonal therapy predicts for early prostate specific antigen failure following radiation and hormonal therapy for patients with intermediate and high-risk prostate cancer.
BACKGROUND: Declines in serum hemoglobin (Hgb) levels occur from the use of androgen suppression therapy (AST) in the treatment of prostate cancer patients. We studied whether time to prostate specific antigen (PSA) failure following external beam radiation therapy (RT) and AST could be predicted by the rate of decline in the Hgb level following the administration of neoadjuvant AST or by the Hgb level at presentation or at the start of RT. METHODS: The study cohort comprised 110 intermediate or high-risk prostate cancer patients who were managed using three-dimensional conformal RT (70 Gy) and 6 months of AST (2 months neoadjuvant, concurrent, and adjuvant). A Cox regression multivariable analysis was performed to evaluate the ability of the rate of decline of the Hgb from baseline to the start of RT, baseline PSA level, Gleason score, percent positive biopsies, and T-category to predict time to PSA failure. RESULTS: A decline in the Hgb level of 1 g/dL or more during the first month of AST was the only significant predictor of time to PSA failure (P = 0.02) on multivariable analysis. The relative risk of PSA failure (95% confidence interval) for patients with a decline in Hgb level during the first month (> or = 1 g/dL vs. < 1 g/dL) was 6.3 (2.4, 8.3) and the 3-year estimate of PSA outcome was 66% versus 82% (P = 0.04), respectively. There were no imbalances in the pretreatment prognostic factors or length of follow-up in each of these groups. CONCLUSION: A decline of 1 g/dL or more in Hgb level during the first month of neoadjuvant AST was a predictor of early PSA failure following RT and AST in intermediate and high-risk prostate cancer patients.
D'Amico, AV; Saegaert, T; Chen, M-H; Renshaw, AA; George, D; Oh, W; Kantoff, PW
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