Surgical approaches to mitral regurgitation.
Surgical approaches to correct mitral regurgitation (MR) have evolved over 50 years and form much of the basis for percutaneous approaches to the mitral valve. Surgical mitral repairs have been more durable with use of annuloplasty, but recurrent regurgitation not resulting in reoperation can occur. The mitral leaflets may be resected or augmented, with recent trends to preserve leaflet coaptation surfaces if possible. Mitral chords tend to be replaced or transferred instead of being shortened. Mitral replacement still has a role when more durable and reliable than repair. Surgical incisions have varied from full sternotomy down to percutaneous access only, with less invasiveness usually requiring a trade-off versus effectiveness or ease of application. Less invasive options in treating MR may encourage higher-risk patients to seek anatomic therapy, whether surgical or percutaneous. Rapidly evolving technology will continue to be a dominant driver of surgical approaches to MR, with increasing overlap and interaction with percutaneous approaches.
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