Ventricular and myocardial efficiencies during acute aortic regurgitation in conscious dogs
Background: Alterations in cardiac efficiency may signal pathologic stresses and energetic adaptation during aortic regurgitation (AR). Methods and Results: LV systolic function, left coronary blood flow, and AVO2 difference were measured in conscious dogs to assess LV and contractile efficiencies at baseline, 1 day (n = 10), 1 week (n=10), and 3 weeks (n=8) of AR. LV systolic function was assessed by the preload recruitable stroke work relationship. Total LV Efficiency (TEFF=SWxHeart Rate/MVO2) and contractile efficiency (CEFF=1/the slope of the MVO2 -pressure-volume area relationship) and steady-state potential energy (PVA-SWxHR), mechanical coupling efficiency (MCE= SWxHR/PVA) were calculated. LV systolic function decreased by 17% at 1 day (P<.05) and by 24% at 3 weeks (P<.05). CEFF decreased from 58±8% to 38±10% (P<.05) at 1 day, normalized at 1 week, and decreased to 28±14% at 3 weeks (P<.05). TEFF was not altered at 1 day and 1 week but decreased by 3 weeks (P<.05). MCE trended downward from baseline of 47±5%, reaching significance at 3 weeks (34±6%, P<.05). Conclusions: CEFF decreases acutely, indicating diminished economy of myocardial contraction. CEFF normalizes at 1 week, suggesting adequate compensation. TEFF is not altered in early AR. By 3 weeks, LV systolic dysfunction is accompanied by depressed TEFF, mechanical coupling, and CEFF signaling the onset of decompensated AR. Thus, volume overload of acute AR resulted in early compensation at the expense of myocardial efficiency with subsequent global dysfunction characterized by depressed LV systolic mechanics, mechanical, coupling, and contractile efficiencies.
Silvestry, SC; Lilly, RE; Atkins, BZ; Lucke, JC; Owen, CH; Marathe, US; Samy, RN; Davis, J; Glower, DD
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