A sphingosine kinase form 2 knockout sensitizes mouse myocardium to ischemia/reoxygenation injury and diminishes responsiveness to ischemic preconditioning.
Sphingosine kinase (SphK) exhibits two isoforms, SphK1 and SphK2. Both forms catalyze the synthesis of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), a sphingolipid involved in ischemic preconditioning (IPC). Since the ratio of SphK1:SphK2 changes dramatically with aging, it is important to assess the role of SphK2 in IR injury and IPC. Langendorff mouse hearts were subjected to IR (30 min equilibration, 50 min global ischemia, and 40 min reperfusion). IPC consisted of 2 min of ischemia and 2 min of reperfusion for two cycles. At baseline, there were no differences in left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP), ± dP/dtmax, and heart rate between SphK2 null (KO) and wild-type (WT) hearts. In KO hearts, SphK2 activity was undetectable, and SphK1 activity was unchanged compared to WT. Total SphK activity was reduced by 53%. SphK2 KO hearts subjected to IR exhibited significantly more cardiac damage (37 ± 1% infarct size) compared with WT (28 ± 1% infarct size); postischemic recovery of LVDP was lower in KO hearts. IPC exerted cardioprotection in WT hearts. The protective effect of IPC against IR was diminished in KO hearts which had much higher infarction sizes (35 ± 2%) compared to the IPC/IR group in control hearts (12 ± 1%). Western analysis revealed that KO hearts had substantial levels of phosphorylated p38 which could predispose the heart to IR injury. Thus, deletion of the SphK2 gene sensitizes the myocardium to IR injury and diminishes the protective effect of IPC.
Vessey, DA; Li, L; Jin, Z-Q; Kelley, M; Honbo, N; Zhang, J; Karliner, JS
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