Characterization of a human squamous carcinoma cell line resistant to cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II).
We have developed a human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell line (SCC-25/CP) which is relatively stably resistant to cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (CDDP) after repeated exposure to escalating doses of the drug. The studies reported elucidate the mechanism(s) by which the SCC-25/CP cell line is resistant to CDDP. The SCC-25/CP cell line is approximately 30-fold resistant to CDDP, approximately 10-fold resistant to carboplatin, and about 9-fold resistant to iproplatin. Using [195mPt]CDDP, we examined the levels of platinum in whole cells and cellular fractions of both the SCC-25 and SCC-25/CP cells after 1 h exposure to 100 microM drug. The SCC-25 cells took up 30 pmol of platinum/10(6) cells in 1 h; 64% of the drug was in the nucleus and 21% in the cytosol. The SCC-25/CP cells took up 7 pmol of platinum/10(6) cells; of this, 41% was in the nucleus and 33% in the cytosol. The SCC-25 cell nuclei contained 331 pmol of platinum/mg protein and the cytosol 21 pmol of platinum/mg protein, whereas the SCC-25/CP cell nuclei contained 47 pmol of platinum/mg protein and the cytosol 8.1 pmol/mg protein. The release of drug from both cell lines followed a very similar course and was most rapid over the first 6 h. There was no difference in the non-protein sulfhydryl content of the cell lines. The protein sulfhydryl content, as measured by Ellman's procedure, indicated that the SCC-25/CP cell line has approximately a 2-fold increase in protein sulfhydryl content compared to the SCC-25 cell line. The SCC-25/CP cell line is about 2-fold resistant to cadmium chloride at 50% cell kill and about 2.5-fold resistant at 1 log kill compared to the SCC-25 cell line. Glutathione transferase activity in crude cytoplasmic extracts was measured and found to be approximately 2- to 3-fold higher in the CDDP resistant cells. The isoelectric point of the glutathione transferase isozyme was 4.8 in both the sensitive and resistant cell lines, suggesting induction of the predominant isozyme present in the parent cell line. By alkaline elution there was greater cross-link formation by CDDP in the SCC-25 cell line than in the SCC-25/CP cell line at the same drug concentrations. In conclusion, the mechanism of resistance of the SCC-25/CP cell line to CDDP is multifactorial, involving plasma membrane changes, increased cytosolic binding, and decreased DNA cross-linking.
Teicher, BA; Holden, SA; Kelley, MJ; Shea, TC; Cucchi, CA; Rosowsky, A; Henner, WD; Frei, E
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