Hormone-dependent interaction between the amino- and carboxyl-terminal domains of progesterone receptor in vitro and in vivo.
Full transcriptional activation by steroid hormone receptors requires functional synergy between two transcriptional activation domains (AF) located in the amino (AF-1) and carboxyl (AF-2) terminal regions. One possible mechanism for achieving this functional synergy is a physical intramolecular association between amino (N-) and carboxyl (C-) domains of the receptor. Human progesterone receptor (PR) is expressed in two forms that have distinct functional activities: full-length PR-B and the amino-terminally truncated PR-A. PR-B is generally a stronger activator than PR-A, whereas under certain conditions PR-A can act as a repressor in trans of other steroid receptors. We have analyzed whether separately expressed N- (PR-A and PR-B) and C-domains [hinge plus ligand-binding domain (hLBD)] of PR can functionally interact within cells by mammalian two-hybrid assay and whether this involves direct protein contact as determined in vitro with purified expressed domains of PR. A hormone agonist-dependent interaction between N-domains and the hLBD was observed functionally by mammalian two-hybrid assay and by direct protein-protein interaction assay in vitro. With both experimental approaches, N-C domain interactions were not induced by the progestin antagonist RU486. However, in the presence of the progestin agonist R5020, the N-domain of PR-B interacted more efficiently with the hLBD than the N-domain of PR-A. Coexpression of steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1) and the CREB binding protein (CBP), enhanced functional interaction between N- and C-domains by mammalian two-hybrid assay. However, addition of SRC-1 and CBP in vitro had no influence on direct interaction between purified N- and C-domains. These results suggest that the interaction between N- and C-domains of PR is direct and requires a hormone agonist-induced conformational change in the LBD that is not allowed by antagonists. Additionally, coactivators are not required for physical association between the N- and C-domains but are capable of enhancing a functionally productive interaction. In addition, the more efficient interaction of the hLBD with the N-domain of PR-B, compared with that of PR-A, suggests that distinct interactions between N- and C-terminal regions contribute to functional differences between PR-A and PR-B.
Tetel, MJ; Giangrande, PH; Leonhardt, SA; McDonnell, DP; Edwards, DP
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