Induction of neutralizing antibodies against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 primary isolates by Gag-Env pseudovirion immunization.
A major challenge for the development of an effective HIV vaccine is to elicit neutralizing antibodies against a broad array of primary isolates. Monomeric gp120-based vaccine approaches have not been successful in inducing this type of response, prompting a number of approaches designed to recreate the native glycoprotein complex that exists on the viral membrane. Gag-Env pseudovirions are noninfectious viruslike particles that recreate the native envelope glycoprotein structure and have the potential to generate neutralizing antibody responses against primary isolates. In this study, an inducible cell line was created in order to generate Gag-Env pseudovirions for examination of neutralizing antibody responses in guinea pigs. Unadjuvanted pseudovirions generated relatively weak anti-gp120 responses, while the use of a block copolymer water-in-oil emulsion or aluminum hydroxide combined with CpG oligodeoxynucleotides resulted in high levels of antibodies that bind to gp120. Sera from immunized animals neutralized a panel of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 primary isolate viruses at titers that were significantly higher than that of the corresponding monomeric gp120 protein. Interpretation of these results was complicated by the occurrence of neutralizing antibodies directed against cellular (non-envelope protein) components of the pseudovirion. However, a major component of the pseudovirion-elicited antibody response was directed specifically against the HIV envelope. These results provide support for the role of pseudovirion-based vaccines in generating neutralizing antibodies against primary isolates of HIV and highlight the potential confounding role of antibodies directed at non-envelope cell surface components.
Hammonds, J; Chen, X; Fouts, T; DeVico, A; Montefiori, D; Spearman, P
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