Control of simian/human immunodeficiency virus viremia and disease progression after IL-2-augmented DNA-modified vaccinia virus Ankara nasal vaccination in nonhuman primates.
A successful HIV vaccine may need to stimulate antiviral immunity in mucosal and systemic immune compartments, because HIV transmission occurs predominantly at mucosal sites. We report here the results of a combined DNA-modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) vaccine approach that stimulated simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)-specific immune responses by vaccination at the nasal mucosa. Fifteen male rhesus macaques, divided into three groups, received three nasal vaccinations on day 1, wk 9, and wk 25 with a SHIV DNA plasmid producing noninfectious viral particles (group 1), or SHIV DNA plus IL-2/Ig DNA (group 2), or SHIV DNA plus IL-12 DNA (group 3). On wk 33, all macaques were boosted with rMVA expressing SIV Gag-Pol and HIV Env 89.6P, administered nasally. Humoral responses were evaluated by measuring SHIV-specific IgG and neutralizing Abs in plasma, and SHIV-specific IgA in rectal secretions. Cellular responses were monitored by evaluating blood-derived virus-specific IFN-gamma-secreting cells and TNF-alpha-expressing CD8+ T cells, and blood- and rectally derived p11C tetramer-positive T cells. Many of the vaccinated animals developed both mucosal and systemic humoral and cell-mediated anti-SHIV immune responses, although the responses were not homogenous among animals in the different groups. After rectal challenge of vaccinated and naive animals with SHIV89.6P, all animals became infected. However a subset, including all group 2 animals, were protected from CD4+ T cell loss and AIDS development. Taken together, these data indicate that nasal vaccination with SHIV-DNA plus IL-2/Ig DNA and rMVA can provide significant protection from disease progression.
Bertley, FMN; Kozlowski, PA; Wang, S-W; Chappelle, J; Patel, J; Sonuyi, O; Mazzara, G; Montefiori, D; Carville, A; Mansfield, KG; Aldovini, A
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