Resistance to neutralizing antibody and expanded coreceptor usage are associated with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates derived from chimpanzees with pathogenic infections.
Immunologic and biologic factors associated with the progression to AIDS in HIV-1-infected chimpanzees were investigated. Chimpanzee C499 was euthanized in 1996 as a result of the development of AIDS approximately 11 years after infection with HIV-1. At the time of initial disease development (September 1995), blood from this animal was transfused to an uninfected chimpanzee, C455, resulting in a rapid loss of CD4(+) T cells. Virus isolates were derived from both animals and termed HIV-1(JC) (derived from C499 at the time of disease development; JC isolate) and HIV-1(NC) (derived from C455 1 month posttransfusion; NC isolate). In vitro studies demonstrate that the parental viruses used to inoculate C499 were susceptible to neutralization by serum from that animal. In contrast, serum from C499 at any time was unable to neutralize the JC or NC isolates. Similarly, the JC and NC isolates were highly resistant to neutralization by serum from C455. However, serum from C455 was also unable to neutralize either of the parental viruses or any of the normally neutralization sensitive isolates tested. Serum samples from the two additional chimpanzees that were inoculated with the NC isolate were also unable to neutralize these isolates. Coreceptor usage of the uncloned JC and NC isolates was somewhat expanded when compared with that of LAV1b and SF2. However, molecular clones derived from the JC and NC isolates (JC16 and NC7) displayed only a limited coreceptor repertoire despite having unique V3 loop sequences. The results suggest that the JC and NC isolates are neutralization escape mutants and display a different phenotype than the parental strains LAV1b and SF2.
Juompan, L; Zhou, J; Montefiori, DC; Novembre, FJ
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