Studies of high doses of a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 recombinant glycoprotein 160 candidate vaccine in HIV type 1-seronegative humans. The AIDS Vaccine Clinical Trials Network.
We examined the safety and immunogenicity of a baculovirus-derived recombinant HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein vaccine candidate, rgp160 (VaxSyn; MicroGeneSys, Meriden, CT), administered at doses of 160 or 640 micrograms to 56 healthy, HIV-1-seronegative adults, in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Immunizations were given intramuscularly at 0, 1, 6, and 12 months. Both doses were generally well tolerated, although self-limited local reactions were frequent. No other clinical or laboratory toxicities were noted, and no effects on CD4 or CD8 lymphocyte counts or percentages were noted. Serum antibody responses to HIV proteins were detected by Western blot (WB) in 19 of 20 and in 19 of 19 recipients of four doses of 160 and 640 micrograms, respectively. Western blot responses developed more rapidly in the 640-micrograms group. High rates of EIA antibody responses to HIV-1 lysate were also present in both groups, and developed more rapidly in the 640-micrograms group. Enzyme immunoassay antibody responses to the immunogen (rgp160) were also frequent, but were infrequent to V3 to gp41 peptides. Neutralizing antibodies against the homologous HIV-1 LAI isolate were seen in 3 of 20 subjects (GMT = 11) who received four doses of 160 micrograms, and in 10 of 19 subjects who received four doses of 640 micrograms (GMT = 32). Fusion inhibiting antibody was not detected. CD4 blocking activity was seen in 3 of 19 subjects who received four doses of 640 micrograms. Complement-mediated antibody-dependent enhancement was found in sera from 11 of 19 volunteers in the 640-micrograms group. Lymphocyte proliferative responses to the immunogen were detected in 4 of 4 subjects tested, but no cytotoxic T cell activity was noted in 11 subjects. Administration of the 640-micrograms dose of this rgp160 vaccine candidate relative to the lower doses was associated with increased immunogenicity, including higher rates of homologous neutralizing antibody responses, although at low titer.
Keefer, MC; Graham, BS; Belshe, RB; Schwartz, D; Corey, L; Bolognesi, DP; Stablein, DM; Montefiori, DC; McElrath, MJ; Clements, ML
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